Arsenic Pollution

Bangladesh is currently facing a serious threat to public health, with 85 million people at risk from arsenic (As) in drinking water and in food crops. In Bangladesh, the groundwater As contamination problem is the worst in the world. Ninety-seven percent of the population in the country uses groundwater for drinking and domestic purposes as surfacewater is mismanaged. High levels of As in groundwater are causing widespread poisoning in Bangladesh. Different studies have addressed various aspects of the As issue in Bangladesh. This review is undertaken to give an overview of the latest findings and statistical data on the issue especially on soil, water and food cycle. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a safe limit for As in drinking water of 10 μg L−1. A recent survey looked at the As concentrations of drinking water from deep wells in 64 districts in the country and found that 59 had concentrations >10 μg L−1 and 43 had concentrations >50 μg L−1. Contaminated groundwater is also used for irrigation of paddy rice, which is the main staple food for the population. This practice enhances the level of As in the soils rendering them unsuitable for agriculture. A few recent studies have reported that 85–95% of total As in rice and a vegetable was inorganic, which outlines the need for more studies for standardization. Arsenic concentration is higher in Bangladeshi soils, groundwater and plants (data based on 4% area of the country) than the permissible limits or normal range reported. This situation poses a serious threat on human and livestock health and highlights the need for scientific studies that would better describes the fate of As in the natural environment and identify all potential routes of exposure.

(-Source: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2005.08.034)

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Global Warming

Global warming has raised global sea level about 8 inches since 1880, and the rate of rise is accelerating. Rising seas dramatically increase the odds of damaging floods from storm surges. A Climate Central analysis finds the odds of “century” or worse floods occurring by 2030 are on track to double or more, over widespread areas of the U.S. These increases threaten an enormous amount of damage. Across the country, nearly 5 million people live in 2.6 million homes at less than 4 feet above high tide — a level lower than the century flood line for most locations analyzed. And compounding this risk, scientists expect roughly 2 to 7 more feet of sea level rise this century — a lot depending upon how much more heat-trapping pollution humanity puts into the sky.

Climate of Bangladesh

The majority of Bangladeshis rely on the country’s natural resources to support their livelihoods, which places tremendous strain on the environment and economy. Bangladesh is facing immediate climate change issues and must become resilient to frequent natural disasters, degradation of forest areas and wetlands, and meet the country’s energy demand without endangering the environment.

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Wastewater Management

Wastewater treatment is a process used to convert wastewater – which is water no longer needed or suitable for its most recent use – into an effluent that can be either returned to the water cycle with minimal environmental issues or reused. The latter is called water reclamation and implies avoidance of disposal by use of treated wastewater effluent for various purposes. Treatment means removing impurities from water being treated; and some methods of treatment are applicable to both water and wastewater. The physical infrastructure used for wastewater treatment is called a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).

The treatment of wastewater belongs to the overarching field of Public Works – Environmental, with the management of human waste, solid waste, sewage treatment, stormwater (drainage) management, and water treatment. By-products from wastewater treatment plants, such as screenings, grit and sewage sludge may also be treated in a wastewater treatment plant. If the wastewater is predominantly from municipal sources (households and small industries) it is called sewage and its treatment is called sewage treatment.

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Waste Management

Waste management or Waste disposal is all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes amongst other things, collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It also encompasses the legal and regulatory framework that relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling etc.

The term normally relates to all kinds of waste, whether generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, or other human activities,[1] including municipal (residential, institutional, commercial), agricultural, and social (health care, household hazardous waste, sewage sludge). Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on health, the environment or aesthetics.

Waste management practices are not uniform among countries (developed and developing nations); regions (urban and rural area), and sectors (residential and industrial).

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Air Pollution

Air pollution is the introduction of harmful substances including particulates and biological molecules into Earth’s atmosphere. It may cause diseases, allergies or death in humans; it may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural or built environment. Human activity and natural processes can both generate air pollution.

Indoor air pollution and poor urban air quality are listed as two of the world’s worst toxic pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World’s Worst Polluted Places report. According to the 2014 WHO report, air pollution in 2012 caused the deaths of around 7 million people worldwide, an estimate roughly matched by the International Energy Agency.

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